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Bremer’s father was president of the Christian Dior Perfumes Corporation in New York and his mother was a lecturer in art history at the University of Bridgeport.

Full text of “Popular Mechanics ~ “

That same year he joined the Foreign Kamsawhich sent him first to KamwaAfghanistan, as a general services officer. He was assigned to BlantyreMalawi, as economic and commercial officer from to During the s, Bremer held various domestic posts with the U. State Departmentincluding posts as an assistant to Henry Kissinger from to Ronald Reagan appointed Bremer as Ambassador to the Netherlands indespite the fact that he did not know any Dutchand Ambassador-at-Large for Counterterrorism and Coordinator for Counterterrorism in Bremer retired from the Foreign Service in and became managing director at Kissinger and Associatesa worldwide consulting firm founded by Henry Kissinger.

Bremer’s office was in the North Tower. In an interview with CNN after the September 11 attackshe stated that their office was located “above where the second aircraft hit”. His appointment declared him subject to the “authority, direction and control” of Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. Bremer arrived in Iraq in May In June, the Office was transformed into the Coalition Provisional Authorityand Bremer became the country’s chief executive authority.

As the top civilian administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority, Bremer was permitted to rule kanaa decree. On July 13,Bremer approved the creation of an Kakaa Interim Governing Council with the stated mission of “ensuring that the Iraqi people ‘s interests are represented.

Bremer retained veto power over the council’s proposals. The council was authorized to select a limited number of delegates to key Coalition Provisional Authority itaq, like the Program Review Board.

Bremer also empowered the CPA to develop and implement the Iraqi constitution. The constitution became controversial when the first draft submitted by the CPA suggested banning political parties opposed to the U. On March 1,after several hours of negotiations, the Iraqi Interim Governing Council resolved the council members’ disagreements with clauses in the constitution.

A formal signing ceremony was scheduled for March 5, As the guests waited and the orchestra played, the signing was canceled due mamaa mass demonstrations. Finally, on March 8,an interim jraq was signed. It was to be revised or replaced by a second constitution after Iraqi elections. On June 28,at Bremer departed from the country on the same day.

In his farewell speech, broadcast on Iraqi television, he said, “I leave Iraq gladdened by what has been accomplished and confident that your future is full of hope.

A piece of my heart will always remain here in the beautiful land between the two kaaa, with its fertile valleys, oraq majestic mountains and its wonderful people”. Bremer’s office was a division of the U. His senior adviser Dan Senor served as coalition spokesman, working with military spokesman Mark Kimmitt. Bremer’s role as the head of the CPA is notable for being kamaz subject of much criticism.

Large sums of money have been reported to have gone missing under Bremer’s leadership. John Negroponte replaced Bremer as the highest-ranking American civilian in Iraq.

Paul Bremer

After his return from Iraq, Bremer engaged in a few speaking tours. On December 14,Bremer was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bush, [20] America’s highest civil award for “especially meritorious contributions to the security or national interests of the United States, to world peace, or to cultural or other significant public or private endeavors”.

Bremer’s April 18, visit as a guest speaker to Clark Universityled to protests against his role in the Iraq War. Luke’s School in the same town for fear for kakaa.

During a February 27, public appearance at Lynchburg Collegewhere his sister-in-law is an assistant dean, Bremer insisted that his decision to disband the Iraqi military was the correct one. Among other things, Bremer repeatedly asserted that when he came to Iraq, the Iraqi army had abandoned its barracks, and therefore “there was no army to disband”.

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He also repeatedly defended his decision to expel Ba’ath Party members from government posts by comparing Saddam Hussein with Adolf Hitler. In Bremer published a memoir called My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope[13] which has been described as “an almost day-by-day narrative that sticks to what Bremer was doing and with whom he was interacting, without providing much analysis or introspection”.

Cities of Alexander the Great

Bremer took as America’s man in Baghdad, partly an effort to issue some ‘I told you so’s’ to administration colleagues, and partly an attempt to spread or reassign responsibility or blame by tracing just who in the White House, Pentagon and State Department signed off on or ordered critical decisions made during lraq tenure”.

His media commentary is generally critical of the Obama administration for not devoting more effort to promoting democracy overseas. He has also endorsed Samuel P. Huntington ‘s ” clash of civilizations ” thesis, stating: But Europe seems unwilling, or perhaps afraid, to acknowledge this reality.

After taking art lessons at a school in Glen Echo, Marylandin ccpa, Bremer began doing oil paintings of New England country landscapes, which he sells through his company Ira Enterprises.

What he sells proceeds to the historical societies of Chester and Grafton in Vermontwhere he moved after his public retirement. Bremer has worked for several seasons as a ski instructor at Okemo Mountain Resort in Vermont.

He also engages in consulting work and serves on a kajaa of boards.

In NovemberBremer joined World T. Bremer also served as a member of the organization’s board of directors. He retired from the organization in March and as of was listed as a ‘Special Advisor’.

Bremer formerly served as a member of the board of directors of the International Republican Institute. On May 23,Bremer issued Order Number 2in effect dissolving the entire former Iraqi army [42] and puttingformer Iraqi soldiers out of work. The move was widely criticized for creating a large pool of armed and disgruntled youths for the insurgency. Former soldiers took to the streets in mass protests to demand back pay. Many of them threatened violence if their demands were not met.

It was widely asserted within the White House and the CPA that the order to disband the Iraqi Army had little to no practical effect since it had “self-demobilized” in the face of the oncoming invasion force.

Bremer was later heavily criticized for officially disbanding the former Iraqi Army. He claimed that many soldiers simply left after the fall of Baghdad; some to protect their own families from the rampant looting. Critics claimed his extreme measures, including the firing of thousands of school teachers and removing Ba’ath party members from top government positions, helped create and worsen an atmosphere of discontent. As the insurgency grew stronger, so did the criticisms.

Bremer was also in personal danger because of Iraqi perceptions of him and was henceforth heavily guarded. Attempts to assassinate him took place on numerous occasions—one of the more publicized events occurred on December 6,when his convoy was driving on the dangerous Baghdad Airport Road while returning to the fortified Green Zone.

The convoy was hit by a bomb and gunfire, with the rear window of his official car blown away and as bullets flew, Bremer and his deputies ducked below their seats.

No injuries or casualties were reported and news of the attack on Bremer was not released until December 19,during his visit to Basra. Despite the messages the CIA reportedly communicated to the Iraqi army, the argument was still ventured that by the time Baghdad fell on April 9,the previous Army had demobilized, or as Bremer puts it, “had simply dissolved”.

The War of Imagination” and dated September 21,American agents—including one colonel and a number of CIA operatives—had already begun meeting regularly with Iraqi officers in order to reconstitute the army as a working force. Implied in this is the notion that the army, temporarily “demobilized” or not, did in fact continue to exist as a coherent entity, indeed coherent enough that it could be consulted and negotiated with.

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As Bob Woodward reports in State of DenialGarner, upon hearing of the order to disband the army, attempted to convince Bremer to rethink the dissolution. Bremer was reported as saying: The thought is we don’t want the residuals of the old army. We want a new and fresh army. The issue of disbanding the old Iraqi Army found itself, once again, the center of media attention with two articles explaining why Bremer ostensibly did not make the decision on his own. The first press release by The New York Times included a letter written by Bremer to President Bush dated May 20,describing the progress made so far since Bremer’s arrival in Baghdad, including one sentence that reads “I will parallel this step with an even more robust measure dissolving Saddam’s military and intelligence structures to emphasize that we mean business.

Bremer’s article goes into further detail about how the Coalition Provisional Authority considered two alternatives: To recall the old army or to rebuild a new army with “both vetted members of the old army and new recruits”. According to Bremer, Abizaid preferred the second.

Bremer also details the situation he and the major decision makers faced; especially when the large Shiite majority in the new army could have had problems with the thought of having a former Sunni officer issuing orders. Furthermore, a memo from U. After two protesters were killed by U. Conscripts were given a single severance payment. Fergusondirector of critically acclaimed No End in Sightcreated a video response to Bremer’s op-ed on September 6, This was the very first New York Times video op-ed in history.

Bremer was once again warned of the harm his actions would have. According to Woodward, when Garner asserted that none of the ministries would be able to function after this order, Bremer asked the Baghdad station chief for his thoughts. Bremer was accountable to the Secretary of Defense for the actions he took. But, since his authority spent Iraq’s oil revenue derived from United Nations Resolutionhe was also accountable to the United Nations. The authority he derived from the UN to spend Iraq’s oil revenue bound him to show that:.

One of the concerns the IAMB raised repeatedly was that the CPA had repaired the well-heads and pipelines for transporting Iraq’s oil, but they had stalled on repairing the meters that were necessary to document the shipment of Iraqi oil, so it could be demonstrated that none of it was being smuggled.

The IAMB was also informed by the CPA that contrary to earlier representations the award of metering contracts have been delayed and continues to urge the expeditious resolution of this critical issue. The CPA has acknowledged that the failure to meter the oil shipments resulted in some oil smuggling—an avoidable loss of Iraq’s oil that was Bremer’s responsibility. Neither Bremer nor any of his staff has offered an explanation for their failure to repair the meters.

The external auditors management notes [61] point out that the CPA didn’t perform a cash reconciliation until Aprileleven months into Bremer’s mandate, when they started their work. In his second regulation, [63] Bremer committed the Coalition Provisional Authority to hire a reputable firm of certified chartered accountants, to serve as internal auditors, to help make sure the Coalition’s finances were administered according to modern accounting principles.

These internal auditors would be separate and distinct from the external auditors who would report to the International Advisory and Monitoring Board.

Iaq did not make sure the CPA hired internal auditors, however. When the external auditors arrived, they learned that Bremer had not made sure the CPA lived up to the commitment to hire internal auditors to help set up a reliable accounting system.