ALIRAN LAMINAR DAN TURBULEN PDF
tekanan statitka 2 Pengenalan jenis aliran fluida Aliran laminar dan turbulen, pengembangan persamaan untuk penentuan jenis aliran: bilangan reynolds. teori dan aspek praktis mekanika fluida, dimulai dengan pembahasan sifat- sifat fluida, aliran laminer dan turbulen dalam pipa dan disekeliling benda padat, . Ya Moody diagram sangat bermanfaat untuk menghitung aliran yang nilai faktor gesekan. dan jenis aliran apakah turbulen ataukah laminer.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Mekanika Fluida, Senin Isi kuliah mencakup konsep perpindahan momentum, berupa sifat kekentalan fluida yang akan mempengaruhi distribusi aliran dalam pipa dan disekeliling benda padat, metoda pengukuran aliran fluida, perhitungan yang menyangkut penurunan tekanan yang terkait dengan daya pompa, atau kipas serta daya yang dapat dibangkitkan Silabus Lengkap dari aliran fluida melalui turbin. This course introduces students to comprehensive understanding concerning fluid mechanics, and its practical aspect in industries, fluid properties, laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and surrounding The content of the course includes the concept of momentum transfer as related to viscosity, flow characteristics, flow distribution in pipes and surrounding solid body, method of fluid measurement, calculation of pressure drop and power required by pumps and blowers and power generated by turbine.
Silabus Mahasiswa mempunyai dasar pengetahuan dan wawasan yang kuat Tujuan Instruksional Umum TIU mengenai mekanika fluida, serta penerapannya di dunia kerja. Mahasiswa mampu menerapkan dan memanfaatkan pengetahuannya Luaran outcomes untuk menyelesaikan persoalan mekanika fluida pada kuliah terkait atau pada dunia kerja sesuai profesinya.
Bila bobot spesifik tekanan Pa udara. Bila titik A berada 10 ft diatas n meniskus yang terkoneksi dengan kaki m manometer tentukan. Dengan menyamakan tekanan pada titik m dan n: Sejalan dengan waktu maka fluida akan mendapatkan momentum dan akhirnya berada pada kondisi mantap steady —state. Untuk mempertahankan kondisi ini diperlukan gaya F untuk mempertahankan aliran plat bagian bawah.
Mekanika Fluida | Nopi Mania –
Terdiri dari 2 pipa, yaitu: Sensor ini menggunakan prinsip perbedaan tekanan untuk mengetahui kecepatan aliran dengan persamaan Bernoulli. Dan leher 2 in. Terdapat pengukur tekanan pada pint masuk dan padaleher venturi yang berada 12 in. The rate of flow was controlled by the control valve at the discharge end of the 2 in.
It was measured by using a collecting tank which was situated above the sump so that the collected water could be drained from the colecting tank directly into the sump. Dimeter inlet and i in, diametr laminnar.
Any air present in the system was allowed to escape by bleeding off some water through bleed valve situtated at the highest point of the 2 in.
Diameter pipe and at the top of the manometer. This was done as follows: Mark on the level gage the stop clock was started. The time taken for the level to rise a specific height was measured and recorded. The collecting tank was then drained through the drain valve. Perhitungan semacam ini sangat penting dalam perhitungan daya pompa atau blower. Besarnya penurunan sepanjang pipa dapat dihitung dengan menggunakan persamaan D’Arcy-Weisbach secara umum sebagai berikut. Wlall drag and changes in height lead to pressure drops in pipe fluid flow.
To calculate the pressure drop and flowrates in a section of uniform pipe running from Point A to Point B, enter the parameters below. The pipe is assumed to be relatively straight no sharp bendssuch that changes in pressure are due mostly to elevation changes and wall friction.
The default calculation is for a smooth horizontal pipe carrying water, with answers rounded to 3 significant figures. Bernoulli’s equation states that the total head h along a streamline parameterized by x remains constant.
No energy is lost in such a flow. For real viscous fluids, mechanical energy is converted into heat in the viscous boundary layer along the pipe walls and is lost from the flow. Therefore one cannot use Bernoulli’s principle of conserved head or energy to calculate flow parameters. Still, one can keep track of this lost head by introducing another term called viscous head into Bernoulli’s equation to get, where D is the pipe diameter.
As the flow moves down the pipe, viscous head slowly accumulates taking available head away from the pressure, gravity, and velocity heads. Still, the total head h or energy remains constant.
For pipe flow, we assume that the pipe diameter D stays constant. By continuity, we then know that the fluid velocity V stays constant along the pipe. With D and V constant we can integrate the viscous head equation and solve for the pressure at Point B, where L is the pipe length between points A and B, and Dz is the change in pipe elevation zB – zA.
Note that Dz will be negative if the pipe at B is lower than at A. The viscous head term is scaled by the pipe friction factor f. For commercial pipes this is usually a very small number. Note that perfectly smooth pipes would have a roughness of zero. The pressure drop is then calculated using the viscous head equation above. The engineer should be aware of this when making calculations. Pressure drop in fittings Head Loss in Fittings is frequently expressed as the equivalent length of pipe that is added to the straight run of pipe as shown below.
The approach does not consider turbulence and subsequent losses created by different velocities.
In this approach K-factor aliarn multiplied by the velocity head of the fluid flow. Dimater return pipe Control valve Balance arm 2way valve Weighing tank Drain Weighing machine valve 1 icn. Any air present was allowed to escape by bleeding off some water through bleed valves situated at the hughest point of the 2 inch dimater pipe and at the top of the manometer.
TL2101 Mekanika Fluida I Benno Rahardyan Pertemuan.
This was done as follows; the drain valve was hut, the weight on the weighing machine was preset to 1 cwt and the water wasdirected to the weighing tank by aloran of the two-way valve. Thus 3 cwt of water were collected during the time indicated by the stop watch.
The water was directed to the sump and the weighing tank drained. Readings Calculated values h’f inch. Which being less then the error for the mercury manometer need not be taken into consideration. Let the water levels in the two reservoir be kept constant at H1 and H2 above the center lines of the pipes.
The system consists of an inlet duct 0.
moody diagram dan viskositas : cara penggunaan ~ Langit Hasnan
The loss at entry oaminar the inlet duct is 0. Draw the total energy and the hydraulic gradien lines and determine in milimeter of water the total loss head rise in the fan. Furthermore there are three unknown velocities and hence one further equation is necessary for their solution. Lmainar differences in levelbetween the water surface in the reservoir and the box is 30 ft. Calculate the flow arte from the reservoir when a one branch only is open b both branches are open.
Assume specific weight of air 0.
Neglect all losses other than friction. Let us assume that laaminar level of the liquid in the reservoir falls by an elemental distance dh in an elemental time dt resulting in a dicrese in volume of A dh.
Let the rate daan flow through the orifice be Q, laminaar therefore the quantity of liquid discharged through the orifice in time dt will be Q dt. Let the pipe diameter be d and the length l. Tank A measures 8ft on a side turublen the initial depth above the orifice is 10 ft, tank B measures 4. How long it take for the water surface to be at the same level? Since the decrease in volume in tank A equals the increase in volume in tank B.
If the time taken for the free surface of oil in the cylinder to fall from 10 cm to 7. Determine the average coefficient of the discharge for the orifice if the tank empties in s from the initial head of 9ft. The incerement of total linear turbullen per unit time is equal to the resultant external forces.
The product mv is known as the momentum. The force F acts in the direction of the change of velocity but it is also important to know its sense. One such application is the determination of the force lamimar to the inertia of the fluid when it is suddenly brought to rest.
Imagine a pipe of length l and the cross sectional area a to be fitted with a valve at its end Fig. The whole body of the fluid in the pipe will then be brought to rest in this time. For simplicity assume that the fluid is not compressible and that the pipe material is non-elastic. Then the force with which the fluid will act on the valve will be equal to the rate of change of momentum of the fluid. It is useful therefore to derive a set of general momentum equations for moving fluids.
These can then lamnar simplified in some special cases. Since the streamtube is curved, which means turbuoen the flow changes in direction, it will be more convenient to resolve the resultant forces into X and Z components. Thus the rate of change of momentum will be considered along these two direction separately.
The velocities at these sections will be v1 and v2. These angles increase positively in the anti-clockwise direction. It uses an arbitrary chosen space defined by fictitious boundaries which enables the motion of the fluid to be considered in relation to this space. It is important to bear in mind that the fluid is conveyed under pressure and therefore this pressure acting on the cross-sectional area of flow gives rise to a force Fp. Let the pressure in the bend be p and neglecting the internal losses let it be the same at inlet and outlet.
Thus at each end of the bend there will be a force numerically equal to pa but each acting along the center-line of the pipe. Considering again the X and Z components.
There is a change of velocity, both in magnitude and direction, and also a change in pressure. Such forces are considered when designing pipe support or allowing for pipe tension or compression by the use of expansion joints. However, it is important to realize that sometimes other effects may give rise to additional forces which will then have to be taken into account.
If the loss in the reducer is 10 ft of water find the resultant thrust on the reducer. Diamter pipe ft long, the entrance of which is located 50ft below the water surface in the tank.