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Repasamos la biografía de Josef Breuer, uno de los principales referentes de Sigmund Freud. Sus estudios sobre la histeria dieron paso al psicoanálisis. Josef Breuer, a physician, collaborated with Sigmund Freud and played an instrumental role in the founding of psychoanalysis with his. Franz Josef Breuer was a senior figure in German military music before His three greatest hits were recorded (twice) for Lindström’s.

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She was diagnosed with hysteria. Freud implies that her illness was a result of the resentment felt over her father’s real and physical illness that later led to his death.

Her treatment is regarded as marking the beginning of psychoanalysis. Breuer observed that whilst she experienced ‘absences’ a change of personality accompanied by confusionshe would mutter words or phrases to herself. In inducing her to a state of hypnosis, Breuer found that these words were “profoundly melancholy fantasies She called this method of communication “chimney sweeping”, and this served as the beginning of free association.

Historical records since showed that when Breuer stopped treating Anna O. She later recovered over time and led a productive life. The West German government issued a postage stamp in honour of her contributions to the field of social work.

According to one perspective, “examination of the neurological details suggests that Anna suffered from complex partial seizures exacerbated by drug dependence.

Professor of psychology Hans Eysenck and medical historian Elizabeth M. Thornton argued that it was caused by tuberculous meningitis. While some believe that Freud misdiagnosed her, and she in fact suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy, and many of her symptoms, including imagined smells, are common symptoms of types of epilepsy, others meticulously refute these claims.

Bertha’s father fell seriously ill in mid during a family holiday in Ischl. This event was a turning point in her life. While sitting up at night at his sickbed she was suddenly tormented by hallucinations and a state of anxiety. At first the family did not react to these symptoms, but in November a friend of the family, the physician Josef Breuer, began to treat her. He encouraged her, sometimes under light hypnosis, to narrate stories, which led to partial improvement of the clinical picture, although her overall condition continued to deteriorate.

Starting on 11 December Bertha Pappenheim was bedridden for several months. Bertha Pappenheim’s father died on 5 April As a result, she became fully rigid and did not eat for days. Her symptoms continued to get worse and on 7 June she was admitted against her will to the Inzersdorf sanatorium, where she remained until November. After returning she continued to be treated by Breuer. She returned to this sanatorium several times over the course of the following years sometimes at her own wish.

According to Breuer, the slow and laborious progress of her “remembering work” in which she recalled individual symptoms after they had occurred, thus “dissolving” them, came to a conclusion on 7 June after she had reconstructed the first night of hallucinations in Ischl. After treatment in Bellevue she was no longer personally treated by Breuer.

Ettlinger engaged in literary work. Pappenheim read aloud to her some of the stories she had written, and her cousin, 14 years her senior, encouraged her to continue her literary activities.

The purpose of this training was to qualify young ladies to head nursing institutions. She could not finish the course before her visit came to an end.

On 29 October her condition improved and she was released from treatment in Kreuzlingen. In the following years, about which biogtafia is known, she lived a quiet life with her mother in Vienna. There is evidence of three stays at Inzersdorf during this time; her sickness was not conquered. Despite her illness, Pappenheim was a strong personality. Breuer describes her as a woman “of considerable intelligence, astonishingly astute reasoning bioggrafia sharp-sighted intuition [ Pappenheim became known to the general public under the pseudonym of Miss “Anna O.


She is hiografia as the first case in which it was possible to “thoroughly investigate” hysteria and cause its symptoms to disappear. Her statement that ed able to verbalize her problem helped her to unburden bbiografia is in accordance with the treatment later denoted in psychoanalysis as the “catharsis theory”. Accordingly, Freud described her as the “actual founder of the psychoanalytic approach”. Based on this case study the assertion that “those with hysteria suffer for the most part from their reminiscences”, in other words from traumatic memories which can be “processed” by relating them, was formulated for the first time.

The statement that symptoms disappear with awareness of their unconscious preconditions has been confirmed by all subsequent research […]. Freud specified psychoanalytic “therapy,” but not theory. Psychoanalysis did not come into being until “Interpretation of Dreams” was written five years later. Aspects of the Anna O.

The detailed case history appeared in in Studies on Hysteria. The name Anna O. One of the reasons for Dora Edinger’s biography was to contrast her identification as being “mentally ill”, which at the time niografia considered defamatory, with a depiction of Pappenheim as a philanthropist and advocate of women’s rights.

Jones’ portrayal contained further details, especially legends about the conclusion of Breuer’s treatment, but except for the information contained in the studies nothing was known about the further course of her illness. Breuer began the therapy without a clear method or theoretical basis. The treatment of her hreuer ranged from feeding her when she rejected food to dosages of chloral when she was agitated.

She had two completely separate states of consciousness which alternated quite often and suddenly, and in the course of her illness became more and more distinct. In the one state she was sad and apprehensive, but biogdafia normal.

In the other state she had hallucinations and “misbehaved”, that is, she swore, threw pillows at people, […] etc. He noted that when in one condition she could not remember events or situations that had occurred in the other condition. He concluded, “it is difficult jowef avoid saying that she dissolved into two personalities, one of which was psychically normal and the other mentally ill.

Such symptoms are associated with the clinical picture of what, at the time of her treatment, was referred to as “split personality” and today is referred to as “dissociative identity disorder. A first therapy approach was suggested by the observation that the patient calmed down and her speech disorder improved whenever she was asked to tell stories that had presumably arisen from her daydreams.

About these daydreams Breuer remarked: The formula he used was always the same: The patient was aware of the relief that “rattling off” brought her, and she described the process using the terms biogrxfia and “talking cure”.

The latter formulation subsequently became part of psychoanalytic terminology.

Other levels of story telling soon came up, and were combined with and penetrated nosef other. Breuer developed systematic remembering and “reeling off” the occasions when hysterical symptoms first occurred into a therapeutic method first applied to Pappenheim. To his surprise he noticed that a symptom disappeared after the first occurrence was remembered, or after the cause was “excavated”. Breuer described his final methodology as follows: In the morning he asked Pappenheim under light hypnosis about the occasions and circumstances under which a particular symptom occurred.

When he saw her in the evening, these episodes—there were sometimes over —were systematically “reeled off” by Pappenheim in reverse temporal order.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

When she got to the first occurrence and thus to the “cause”, the symptoms appeared in an intensified form and then disappeared “forever”. This therapy came to a conclusion when they had worked their way back to a “black snake” hallucination which Pappenheim experienced one night in Ischl when she was at her father’s sickbed.


Breuer describes this finish as follows:. In this way all the hysteria came to an end. The patient herself had made a firm resolution to finish the business on the anniversary of her transfer to the countryside. For that reason she pursued the “talking cure” with great energy and animation.

On the final day she reproduced the anxiety hallucination which was the root of all her illness and in which she could only think and pray in English, helped along by rearranging the room to resemble her father’s sickroom. Immediately thereafter she spoke German and was then breueg of all the innumerable individual disorders which biografix had formerly shown.

A legend arose about the conclusion of Pappenheim’s treatment by Josef Breuer.

Bertha Pappenheim – Wikipedia

It was handed down in slightly different versions by various people; one version is contained in a letter from Freud to Stefan Zweig:. That biorafia, after all her symptoms were overcome, he was again called to her, and found her confused and writhing with abdominal cramps. When asked what was the matter she responded, “Now the child I have from Dr. At that moment he had in his hand the key which would open the way to the Mothers, but he dropped it.

With all his intellectual talents he was devoid of anything Faustian. Bfeuer took flight in conventional horror and passed on the patient to a colleague.

She struggled for months in a sanatorium to regain her health. He confirmed my analysis, which she later relayed to me. As nothing is known of such a publication by Freud, it is not clear where Breuer’s daughter could have read it.

In the version by Ernest Jones, after his flight Breuer quickly goes on a second honeymoon to Vienna with his wife Mathilda, who actually conceives a child there—in contrast to the imaginary child of Bertha Pappenheim. There is no evidence for any of this, and most of it has been proved false.

Breuer did not flee but rather referred his patient to Kreuzlingen. He did not go to Vienna but with his family on a summer vacation to Gmunden, and he did not conceive a child either in Vienna biografoa in Gmundensince his youngest child—Dora Breuer—was born on 11 Marchthree months before the alleged conception. Freud’s purpose in describing the conclusion of treatment in a ve that contradicts some of the verifiable facts is unclear.

The assumption that he wanted to make himself the sole discoverer of psychoanalysis at Breuer’s expense is contradicted by the description of the discovery in Freud’s writings, in which he does not minimize Breuer’s role, but rather emphasizes it.

Freud’s behavior is compared by some authors with his conduct in the so-called “cocaine affair”. There, too, he gave false representations not only privately, but also several times in published form, without there being any advantage to offset the risk of lasting damage to his scientific reputation. Breuer later described the therapy as “a trial by ordeal”, probably in the sense of an examination.

It claimed of him over 1, hours in the course of two years. After Breuer ceased treating her, both he and Freud continued to follow the course of Pappenheim’s illness. In a private seminar Carl Gustav Jung said in So the famous first case he treated together with Breuer and which was vastly praised as an outstanding therapeutic success was nothing of the sort.

But in this famous case the patient was not healed.