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ABSTRACT. The purposes of this research are: (a) to investigate the generalisability of Boom and Bitner’s () services. Marketing Mix. Booms and Bitner () had modified and expanded the traditional. marketing mix elements from 4Ps to become 7Ps by adding another three new Ps. The marketing mix is a foundation model. The marketing mix has been defined as the “set of In , Booms and Bitner proposed a model of 7 Ps, comprising the original 4 Ps extended by process, people and physical evidence, as being.

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Over the years, butner the concept of marketing has evolved, and the definition of a product has grown more complex, the traditional marketing mix has also been redefined and extended. The traditional marketing mix comprised of the 4Ps of productpriceplace and promotion has enjoyed tremendous popularity over the years.

When it was first articulated by McCarthy init consisted of 12 parameters that were to be mixed like ingredients by a marketer.

Eventually brought down to the much smaller number of 4, the framework became simpler and easier to understand but there bitned a lack of depth and several important elements were missed out such as the provision of services to the consumer. Keeping in mind these shortcomings, marketing experts and researchers have expanded on these over the years.

Some of these expansions have included:. Proposed by Judd bkomsa fifth P was added to the model. This stood for People. The basis for this was that the people providing the product or service to the customer had an important role to play in communicating the right message and had a significant impact on the user experience. InKotler proposed an additional two Ps to the original model of 4. These were political power and public opinion formation. Kotler proposed that when entering foreign markets, there was a need to satisfy an audience beyond the target market.

These were the governments, regulatory bodies, trade associations and even other interested groups who had power over the intended market.

Hence the political power and public opinion formation was needed to gain their support. This model has gained significant traction over the years as services and their marketing is increasingly being given due importance as an independent field of study. This model, 11981 by Booms and Bitner inextends the marketing mix by 3 new Ps that directly relate to the service provision industry.

These are peoplephysical evidence and process. The longest extension to the original model was proposed by Baumgartner in boomz includes peoplepoliticspublic relationsprobepartitionprioritizepositionprofitplanperformanceand positive implementations.

Mary Jo Bitner

In an bifner to add depth, much complexity has also been added to the model. The most widely used extension of the traditional marketing 191 is the bitndr model for services marketing. The traditional marketing mix was designed and gained popularity in an era where most businesses sold products. Any service provision and the role of good customer service was largely ignored and the potential impact on brand development and the user experience was not understood.

This was remedied when Booms and Bitner proposed bitnsr extension to create the services marketing mix that we see today. The extended model should now be used to create competitive strategies in a more holistic manner.

Now a recognized offshoot of the traditional field of marketing, services marketing is the design of strategy to address the provision of services, both in a business to consumer context and the business to business scenario.

1891 examples of core services are telecom services, airlines, accountancy or tax services, the hotel industry and professional services such as hair boons, dry cleaners or tailoring services.


Services marketing may hitner cover elements in a traditional physical product sales environment such as customer services and tech support. A service is consumed at the point of sale. Since the service cannot be owned and is consumed at the point of delivery, the process through which it is delivered, the person who delivers it, and the environment in which it is delivered become an indicator of whether a customer leaves satisfied and if they will want to return.

There are five fundamental defining characteristics of a service. These characteristics are the basis of the 7P model for marketing. The 7Ps includes the traditional elements, plus three new elements. In the services marketing concept, these are defined as following.

Product In the service industry, the production and consumption of binter product are simultaneous and the product is intangible, diverse and perishable. This also means that the point at which this activity is occurring becomes very important. Ideally, to ensure repeat experiences of similar quality and a consistently good user experience, most service providers aim to give some customization within an overall standardized mode of delivery. Pricing Since a service cannot be measured by what material goes into its creation nor is the actual tangible cost biner production measurable, it boomms be challenging to put a price tag on it.

There are some tangibles of course, such as the labor costs and overheads. But additionally, the ambiance, the experience and the brand name also factor into the final price offering. Place As mentioned, the service is produced and consumed in the same place. It cannot be owned and taken away from the location. This is why the place at which boome transaction occurs is of vital importance. The location of the service provision is carefully analyzed to allow ease of access and the desire to make the effort to reach it.

Fast food restaurants and sales and service centers may be located in busy main streets to allow walk in customers, while a fine dining restaurant may be located in a quiet street to maintain exclusivity and privacy.

Promotion Promotion fulfills the same role as it does in any other marketing context.

Service Marketing mix, the 7 P’s by Booms and Bitner | ToolsHero

A service may be more easily replicated than a physical product. To prevent a service becoming interchangeable with its competitors, it becomes vital to create a desirable brand image and name in the market. Differentiation becomes a key goal in order to attract both new and repeat customers.

This is a vitally important element of the service marketing mix. When a service is being delivered, the person delivering it is not unique from the service itself. When dining at a restaurant, if a rude waiter is encountered, the entire experience will be labeled as bad service.

This is why many boooms invest in defining the right kind of person to fill their service role and then making efforts to find or train people to fit this definition. Since service provision needs to strike a balance between customization and standardization, the processes involved in the activity require special mention and attention.

A process needs to be bitjer defined for the service provider. This basic process should ensure the same level of service delivery to every customer, at any time of day, on any day.

Within this process, there should be defined areas where a customer preference can be accommodated to provide a unique experience. The location of the service delivery also takes on significance.

The level of comfort and attractiveness of a service location may make a lot of difference bitnfr the user experience. When setting out to design or improve a marketing mix for a service provider, the marketer should ask the following questions:.


Marketing Theories – The 7Ps of the Marketing Mix

They created food processing and assembly line techniques at a tiny drive-in restaurant bitne Pasadena, California. Inthe restaurant was franchised in the USA. Inthe restaurant went global with a foothold in Canada. The product offered is a standard set of items that are similar in taste and appearance wherever in the world they are being sold. There is some adaptation boooms to local tastes and laws.

For example, a more vegetarian menu is offered in India, where gitner majority does not eat meat. In Muslim countries, any pork products are eliminated and halal meat is used. There are also taste adaptations such as beer in Germany, yogurt drinks in Turkey and espresso in Italy. There are also burger variations in different countries. Despite these differences, the menu is structured in the same way which allows for the same experience everywhere.

The organization attempts to price differently across its operations. This means that the right price is selected for the right market. Pricing decisions are made by setting a pricing objective, determining demand, estimating costs, analyzing competing offers, deciding on a pricing method and then finalizing a price.

By following this method and primarily assessing competitors, the company can understand what the bitenr is willing to pay and what value they attach to the product. By first understanding cultural differences, a localized promotion strategy is employed. The food specifications for size, weight and content are the same everywhere.

All biyner need to meet these specifications. Kitchen and restaurant layouts are the same.

7Ps of Marketing | Additional Elements of Marketing mix

To cater to language differences, the menu displays contain images that help create similarities everywhere. There are also defined processes for service delivery such as all orders need to be filled within 90 seconds in the restaurant while drive through wait time is 3.

The company staffs locally and also promotes from within. This allows the team managing the operations to understand local cultures as well as the corporate philosophy. The people chosen are trained in both technical skills and customer focus. A Hamburger University in the USA as well as other training centers in different parts of the world teach standard practices that are to be employed in restaurants all over the world. This training helps standardize product and service delivery.

There is a play area for children, and service is always provided with a smile. All menus are structured in similar ways with fries and drink combos.

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