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1 photo. ‘PARA LOS ALUMNOS DE QUIROMASAJE PROFESIONAL: Cuadro de MIOTOMAS y ESCLEROTOMAS.’ ‘PARA LOS ALUMNOS DE QUIROMASAJE. tanto es necesaria la exploración sistemática de dermatomas y miotomas para .. extremidades espásticas e impedir contracturas que compliquen el cuadro. tanto es necesaria la exploración sistemática de dermatomas y miotomas para .. extremidades espásticas e impedir contracturas que compliquen el cuadro.

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On having consulted this thesis you re accepting the following use conditions: Reproduction with lucrative aims is not authorized nor its spreading and availability from a site foreign to the TDX service or to the UB Digital Repository. Those rights affect to the presentation summary of the thesis as well as to its contents.

In the using or citation cuador parts of the thesis it s obliged to indicate the name of the author. Mario Marotta Baleriola y el Dr. No una historia, sino un misterio al que hay que atacar por cuadrro flancos. Quiero agradecer a la empresa Bioiberica S. Gracias por tu constante disponibilidad y por toda la ayuda que me has brindado durante esta tesis doctoral.

Porque uno cree que ya ha conocido a todos sus amigos, y a veces se equivoca. Gracias por las incontables risas, por vuestro apoyo y por tantos y tanto recuerdos.

No te agradezco esta tesis, te agradezco una vida. De ti admiro casi todo; gracias por tu paciencia, por miotomae valores que difundes, por tu miottomas y por tu inteligencia. Estos factores pueden ser liberados y activados por proteasas La neurona motora y el conjunto de miofibras a las que estimula constituyen una unidad motora.

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Por lo tanto, las unidades motoras lentas siempre se activan independientemente de la velocidad. Tabla adaptada de Wackerhage Se han propuesto dos mecanismos que dan lugar al mantenimiento de SC: Por otro lado, en aquellos que tienen un bajo porcentaje de fibras tipo I, puede ocurrir un cambio significativo, de tipo de fibra II a tipo I Trappe et al.

A pesar de que el ejercicio, ejerce efectos moduladores en las diferentes etapas del ciclo de vida de las SC, existe una gran inconsistencia con respecto a las respuestas que desencadenan los diferentes tipos de ejercicio. Todas estas lesiones se Este hecho puede Sin embargo, la eficacia de esta terapia sigue siendo controvertida.

Mientras que algunos autores han observado resultados positivos con su uso, Rantanen et al. Woodard en Kujala et al. No changes in blood vessel density and blood vessel diameter Reduced collagen 1 but increased type 3 collagen fibers in trained PRPtreated rats.

Exercise in association with PRP enhances the skeletal musclehealing process No differences at any follow-up time, No differences between the timing of PRP injection Quantification of centrally nucleated fibers Differences with controls were more evident in the small strain group. In this group, PRP improved contractile function at 7 and 14 days, shortening time to full recovery from 21 to niotomas days. MyoD and myogenin transcripts elevated in PRP treated on day 7. The number of regenerating fibers peaked at 2 weeks and was higher in the small strain group moitomas in controls Harris et al.

Estudios in vivo e in vitro. Sin embargo, los resultados actuales siguen siendo controvertidos Moraes et al.

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Fuentes de variabilidad en las terapias de PRP: A Hamid et al. Repeated injections every 2 days until recovery. Mean number ACS injections: MRI analysis supported the observed acceleration of the lesion recovery time Mean time to rehab 20 days Return to sport activities 1 patient relapse after 1 year Median time to return to play 20 days in PRP group and 17 days in the control group No scarring, pain, bruising or complications after 6 months Tabla 5.

Mientras que Reurink y colaboradores Reurink et al. Miotomaz embargo, Chevalier y colaboradores Chevalier et al. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine administration improves muscle regeneration in rats: De la Varga 1, G. Rodas 1, 8, M. December 15, Int J Sports Med ; Abstract Skeletal muscle injuries are the most common sports-related injuries in sports medicine. In this work, we have generated a new surgicallyinduced skeletal muscle injury in rats, by using a biopsy needle, which could be easily reproduced and highly mimics skeletal muscle lesions detected in human athletes.


By means of histology, immunofluorescence and MRI imaging, we corroborated that our model reproduced the necrosis, inflammation and regeneration processes observed in dystrophic mdx-mice, a model of spontaneous muscle injury, and realistically mimicked cuadri muscle lesions observed in professional athletes.

According to the World Health Organization WHOmusculoskeletal injuries are the most common cause of severe long-term pain and physical disability, and affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide [38].

Loss or abnormality of bodily structure or functioning resulting from an isolated exposure to physical energy during sports training or competition are normally diagnosed by a clinical professional as a medically recognized injury [33]. In human sport clinics, the diagnosis of muscle injury is adequate in most cases, but imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, computed tomography CT or magnetic cadro imaging MRI are important to differentiate between structural lesions and functional disorders and to determine the extent of the injury although of muscle regeneration and fibrogenesis as stated by Myosin Heavy Chain developmental MHCd and collagen-i cuadeo expression.

MRI imaging analysis demonstrated that our muscle injury model reproduces the grade I-II type lesions detected in professional soccer players, including edema around miottomas central tendon and the typically high signal cuado shape along muscle fibers.

This new model represents an excellent approach to the study of the mechanisms of muscle injury and repair, and could open new avenues for developing innovative therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle regeneration in sports medicine.

Ultrasonography can be considered a valid first-line tool, if a more exact characterization of the injury is desired. MRI can accurately confirm or rule out the existence of muscle injury and also provides a very detailed characterization of the muscle lesion [18].

At present, there is much miotomxs in the classification of skeletal muscle injuries, which sometimes causes limitations to the comprehensive study of muscle injuries and discrepancies in the uniformity for their categorization and description [10]. Based in the last classification proposed by Pollock et al. These are small injuries of the Downloaded by: Hospital Universitari Vall d’hebron. These types of injuries are moderate injuries cuadr the muscle.

Architectural fiber disruption is commonly less than 5 cm; c Grade III: These injuries are extensive injuries of the muscle. It is evidenced that the architectural muscle fiber disruption which is likely to be greater than 5 cm; d Grade IV: These are the most severe injuries and are characterized by a complete tear of either the muscle or tendon. Skeletal muscle lesions are often caused by eccentric contraction that forcibly lengthens an activated muscle.

When unaccustomed or intense, this active stretching of the muscle-tendon unit can produce exercise-induced muscle injury [7]. The consequences of failed treatment can be very dramatic, possibly postponing an athlete s return to play for weeks or even months. Thus the recognition of some basic principles of skeletal muscle regeneration and healing processes can considerably help in both avoiding the imminent dangers and accelerating the return to competition [17]. Adult skeletal muscle has the ability to self-repair in response to injury [6, 13] and commonly the muscle tissue is damaged and repaired repeatedly throughout life, especially in sportsmen.

The natural history of muscle injury proceeds through a highly coordinated sequence of steps. Muscle regeneration is a highly coordinated process that requires the utilization of undifferentiated cells, called satellite cells or myogenic progenitor cells located between the basal lamina and the sarcolemma of mature muscle fibers [3, 9, 13, 31].

Satellite cell population is a residual pool of self-renewing progenitor cells, capable of supporting additional rounds of regeneration and to reestablish the initial quiescent satellite cell s pool after every muscle injury episode [8]. When activated by muscle damage, they can proliferate producing a large number of myoblasts that can repair skeletal muscle injury and generate a large number of new myofibers within just a few days [36].



Myoblasts can fuse and differentiate into multinucleated fibers recapitulating the events of embryonic muscle development and finally restoring the skeletal muscle architecture [6, 13, 25, 28, 31].

The complex muscle repair process is dependent on an orchestrated response between the inductive signals of cytokines and growth factors, which are released by the injured fibers, invading macrophages and inflammatory cells or connective tissue [6, 9].

The repair of skeletal muscle follows a set pattern, which can be divided into 3 phases [15, 16, 18, 19, 21]: Even though in the last 25 years extensive research has been directed towards the elucidation of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration, its complex regulatory pathways still remain poorly understood [22].

In this study, we present a new in vivo model of surgicallyinduced lesions that could mimic the most frequent skeletal muscle lesions observed in the human sports clinics. Hence, in the present work our aim was to generate a new surgicallyinduced skeletal muscle injury model in rats that could be easily reproduced and that mimicked the skeletal muscle lesions observed in human elite athletes and sportsmen which could open new avenues for future studies of innovative therapeutic approaches to skeletal muscle regeneration and sports medicine.

The total number of animals used in our study was Water and food were given ad libitum during the experiments. The surgical procedure for creating skeletal traumatic muscle lesion in the rat gastrocnemius muscle is illustrated in Fig. Transversal biopsy procedure was performed at the myotendinous junction level of the right leg medial gastrocnemius muscle 3 mm from the start of muscle-tendon junction and 2 mm in depth after shaving the lower extremity and cleaning with ethanol to identify the white Achilles tendon and measure the injury site from the muscletendon junction site.

Post-surgical analgesia buprenorphine 0. Our study conforms to the ethical standards in sport and exercise science research [12]. Microphotographs were Downloaded by: Post-surgical analgesia was subcutaneously administered to all operated animals.

The areas of the injured muscle region and the total medial gastrocnemius were quantified by using the Image J v1. The size of the muscle lesion was represented by the percentage of the injured area vs. Gastrocnemius muscles were excised, and immediately frozen in 2-methylbutane Alfa Aesar. Consecutive frozen muscle sections were used for histological and immunofluorescence analysis. Low resolution T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were initially obtained in axial, sagittal and coronal planes to be used as reference scout images.

Imaging parameters for these images were: High resolution T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were acquired afterwards in axial, sagittal and coronal planes containing the lesion and the contralateral side. Experimental parameters for these images were: MRI data were acquired and processed on a Linux computer using Paravision 5.

Anesthetized animals were placed in prone position in a platform with the knee placed in fully extended position and fixed with 2 needles one in the knee and the other in the ankle in order to immobilize the limb.

Achilles tendon including the calcaneus was separated from the surrounding tissue leaving the proximal origin, blood supply and nerves intact. The Achilles tendon was cut and attached, by using a tendon hook stretched with a passive force of mn, to a force transducer TRI Letica Scientific Instruments, Barcelona, Spain connected to a polygraph Polygraph ; Letica Scientific Instruments, Barcelona, Spain.

The sciatic nerve was then exposed through a lateral incision on the thigh and connected to an electrode and a stimulator Universal Kimograph; Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, Massachusetts, USA.