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Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only. The Dzongkha Development Commission is very pleased to present the first Dzongkha grammar with such a wide scope, and the Commission feels indebted to. Dzongkha, or Bhutanese is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national.

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. No part of this book may be reproduced without prior consent in writing from the publisher, except for properly referenced quotations in scholarly publications. Dzongkha Development Commission Royal Government of Bhutan Introductory Letter This Grammar of Dzongkha is the first attempt at a truly comprehensive and authoritative grammar in English of the national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan. The book is designed to meet the dual requirement of providing a reference grammar of the national language and furnishing a grammar textbook for serious students of Dzongkha who are not themselves na- tive speakers of the language.

This book has been written both for the linguist and the layman. Linguistic conven- tions incomprehensible to the layman are avoided in this book except where they may prove helpful to the intelli- gent reader.

The book is a descriptive grammar of modem Dzongkha, the living language as it is spoken in the King- dom of Bhutan, not a normative grammar emulating Cho- ke, the ancient liturgical language. As a grammar textbook, the Grammar of Dzongkha is to be used in conjunction with the Dzongkha Language Workbook, to be made available both in English and Ne- pali.

The chapters in the grammar correspond to the num- IV V bered sections in the workbook. Grammatical explanations are provided in this book which will enable the student to complete the exercises in the workbook.

Dzongkha Lessons

The Grammar of Dzongkha is set up in the classical frammar, beginning with the traditional orthography and the phonology and finishing up with the more complex syntactic structures of the language. It is our hope that this linguistic study of our na- tional language will be of service to linguists, instructors, students and laymen for many years to come. The languages of Bhutan 1 2. Dzongkha, national language of Bhutan 2 3.

Other languages of the Dzongkha group 5 4. Languages of dsongkha Bumthang group 1 1 5. Tshangla Shachop 17 6. Other Tibeto-Burman languages of Bhutan 18 7. Dzongkha and Choke 30 9. Transliteration and transcription 31 Language map of Bhutan 33 Chapter Two: Dzongkha phonology Chapter Five 1.

Dzongkha initials and tones 49 1. The ergative case 2. Dzongkha vowels 53 2. The steady state present and 3. Phonetic description of Dzongkha vowels 55 the suffix of new knowledge 4. Phonetic description of Dzongkha initials 64 3. The progressive 5. Dzongkha finals 96 4. The factual present and inflected stems 6. Contour tones 5. The present continuous 6. Experienced perceptions Chapter Four 7.

The adhortative and the optative 8. The supine 1.

Dzongkha Grammar

Dzongkha pronouns 9. Modal s expressing permission, ability, 2. Suffixes and postpositions opportunity, exigency and probability 3.

Rhetorical questions 4. The comparative -wa and Chapter Six the superlative -sho 6. The grammqr past 7.

Perfective aspect and auxiliaries 9. Telling time expressing Aktionsart 4. The present gerund 5. The past participle 6.


The adverbializer IX viii Chapter Seven 1. Periphrastic constructions with the infinitive 3. The potential auxiliary 4.

The autolalic future and future perfect 5. Interrogative and indefinite pronouns 6. The Bhutanese calendar Chapter Eight 1. Subordinate clauses, indirect speech and the hearsay evidential 2. The subordinator -mi 3. In prac- tice, however, the depth of tradition was so great that the from to the Classical Tibetan liturgical lan- guage Choke was taught as the written language in the schools.

Previously many inspired individuals have under- taken to grammat the cause of the national language of Bhu- tan. Introduction to Dzongkha in Delhi, and in Doji Chodro wrote the highly useful dzongkua. Both booklets contain a brief intro- duction to Dzongkha pronunciation and script in English, vocabulary and example sentences but neither attempts to provide any explanation of the grammar of the language. Since the Dzongkha Development Section of the Royal Department of Education has been systematically producing Dzongkha language materials for the instruction of graammar speakers in primary and secondary schools.

Since the work for the advancement of the national language of Bhu- tan has been dzongka forth by the Dzongkha Development Com- mission of the Royal Government of Bhutan under the aus- picious chairmanship of the Minister of Finance Doji Tshe- ring The Dzongkha Development Commission has developed many excellent school text- book.

Hap Tsentsen grrammar the first to respond to the need of Dzongkha learning materials for speakers of Nepali.

Dzongkha – Wikipedia

His Miri Pinsum Integrated Dzongkha Language Book was the first book intended to making the national lan- guage of Bhutan accessible to Nepali speakers in the south of the kingdom. In the Dzongkha Gramar Commission put out the Dzongkha Rabsel Lamzang which was a modernized and much expanded version of An Introduction to Dzongkhawritten in English for foreign learners of Dzongkha.

This useful booklet contains origi- grammar material but al so incorporates, both literally and in simplified form, portions of a preliminary version of the present Grammar of Dzongkha, which was circulated in Thimphu in good faith in the winter of to The Second Survey aims at producing in-depth descriptions of individual Bhutanese languages and topo- nymical studies, whereby the Dzongkha and Romanized spellings of place names throughout the kingdom are standardized and their local etymologies investigated.

On 26 Septemberan official system for the rendering of Dzongkha in the Roman script was intro- duced by the Royal Government of Bhutan. This system, known as Roman Dzongkha, is based on the phonology of the modem spoken language and serves as a standard for representing Dzongkha terms, names and words in the international media and wherever the Roman script is dzongkga quired.

The author thanks the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Af- fairs and Tom Derksen in particular for his enthusiastic support of this undertaking, and the vzongkha also extends his gratitude to Professor Frederik Kortlandt of Leiden Uni- versity for his valuable counsel. Moreover, the exquisite calli- graphy and beautiful Dzongkha handwriting in Chapter Two of this grammar was also provided by Gasep Karma Tshering. The languages of Bhutan Dzongkha is the national language of the kingdom of Bhutan.

It is the native language of eight of the twenty dis- tricts of Bhutan, grxmmar. It geammar hoped that the present book will help foreigners to acquire a mastery of Dzongkha and, in so doing, ezongkha help promote the use of the national language. In addition to Dzongkha, there are twenty languages spoken in Bhutan.

Dzongkha Lessons

All of the languages of Bhutan are Tibeto-Burman languages, with the exception of Lho- tshamkha. The languages of Bhutan can be divided into eight distinct groups: This conjugation has also been preserved in the Kiranti languages in eastern Nepal, the extinct Tangut language once spoken in the area known today as Inner Mongolia, and in a number of other Tibeto- Burman languages in Asia spoken in small communities which have remained grmamar isolated and stable for long periods of time.


But first we shall turn to the national language of the country. Dzongkha, national language of Bhutan Dzongkha is the national language of Bhutan and the native language of western Bhutan, comprising dzojgkha of the twenty districts of the kingdom. Dzongkha furthermore serves as lingua franca and official language throughout the kingdom.

In countries such as Thailand, Burma or Vietnam, where even more different languages are spoken than in Bhutan, only one of the many languages of the country serves as the national language. So too, in Bhutan the national language is Dzongkha.

An essential trait which Dzongkha shares with the national languages of other mod- hrammar countries is a rich literary tradition of great antiquity. Dzongkha derives from Classical Tibetan through many centuries of independent linguistic evolution on Bhutanese soil. Linguistically, Dzongkha can be qualified as the natural modem descendant of Classical Tibetan or in Bhutan, the language in which sacred Buddhist texts, medical and scientific treatises and, indeed, all learned works have been written.

These fortresses have traditionally been both centres of military and political power as well as centres of learning. The status of Bzongkha as the language of the royal court, the military elite, educated nobility, government and adminis- tration is firmly rooted in Bhutanese history at least as far back as the twelfth century. This explains why so many of the staunch supporters of Bzongkha in Bhutan are native speakers of other languages of the kingdom.

Much of the couleur locale of these northern dialects results from structural and lexical similarities with Tibetan. Other languages of the Dzongkha group 3a. The language is seldom called Cho-ca-nga-ca-kha by its speakers, who prefer to employ loconyms.

Cho-ca-nga-ca-kha is more conservative in its pro- nunciation of many words than Dzongkha, e. Most verbal suffixes are cognate to their Dzongkha counterparts, but Cho-ca-nga-ca-kha has adop- ted the Bumthang infinitival ending -mala, e. A separate -study of the Cho-ca-nga-ca lan- guage would shed much light on the historical development of its sister language Dzongkha.

Ora the east dzongkhw of the Kurichu, Cho-ca- nga-ca-kha is spoken as far south as the village of Toranazhong, beneath which the Threwen- chu, a lateral tributary of the Kurichu, marks the boundary between the Cho-ca-nga-ca and Chali language areas.

BrokpakS is what the Brokpas of Mera and Sakteng call their language. The Brokpas are yakherds in the eg of Tra- shigang district.

In Dzongkha the language is called Bjokha and its speakers are known as Bjop. There are an estimated seventy-odd households in Zdongkha, roughly two thirds of which axe Brokpa house- holds and one third Bumthangpa households. There are an estimated Lakha 10 11 speaking households in the geo with some speakers.