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Facts About. Spiny threecorner-Jack is native to Mediterranean Africa, but has made its way around the world. It has a patchy distribution in the U.S. and is. Emex spinosa (spiny emex, devil’s-thorn) is an annual (family Polygonaceae) found on California’s south coast. This Mediterranean native is not yet common in . Emex Campd. Environment. terrestrial. Original description. Not documented. Taxonomic citation. WoRMS (). Emex spinosa. Accessed at.

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Emex spinosa Calflora

Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 35 4: Germination reproduction and interference in the amphicarpic annual Emex spinosa L. Graham, ; Agnew, ; Holm et al. Habitat terrestrial New England state Massachusetts Specific habitat man-made or disturbed habitats.

Proceedings of the 9th Australian Weeds Conference, Weed control in transplanted “Iceberg” lettuce. Weed control in cereals in Jordan. Also covers those considered historical not seen in 20 years.

Brachycaudus rumexicolens has a widespread distribution within Australia and its predicted distribution range Scott and Yeoh, overlaps with the known distribution range for E.

Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82 3: The spiny fruits of Emex ekex and Emex australis distinguish this small genus of only two species from RumexFagopyrumand Polygonum.

Current research on plant pathogens as biocontrol agents for weeds of Mediterranean origin. Kosinova, ; Greuter et al. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. With 29 mm annual rainfall, there was not enough moisture to allow germination and with mm annual rainfall there was good germination and the production of both mature subterranean and aerial achenes.


It is common in disturbed areas, aspecially in sandy soils. Lee C, Schaaf T, eds.

History of Introduction and Spread Top of page In Australia, Gilbey states that it was first collected in from an inland pastoral town in Western Australia where the locals said it had been present since It is reported on roadsides in Australia Weiss and Julien,along roads and railways in Kenya Graham,in field borders and in waste sandy places in Pakistan Siddiqi,along field drains in India Varma et al.

Glands on leaf blade the leaf blades do not have glandular dots or scales Sap the sap is clear ekex watery Sap color the sap is clear.

Spiny threecorner-Jack is native to Mediterranean Africa, but has made its way around the world.

Emex spinosa

California State Printing Office. Other insects, the weevils Coniocleonus excoriatus, Lixus cribricollis, Perapion neofallax, and Perapion violaceum, the aphid Dysaphis emicis, and the coreid bug Haploprocta sulcicornis are commonly found on plants in its indigenous range and have been proposed for assessment as biological control agents Scott and Yeoh, Crown agents for overseas governments and administrations, In Australia where both species have occurred sympatrically in several locations for more than 30 years Putievsky et al.

Soil Tolerances Top of page Sipnosa drainage free Soil reaction acid alkaline neutral Soil texture heavy light spnosa Special soil tolerances infertile.

Siddiqi reports that on each of the three flat faces between spines are six small pits, although the actual number of small pits can vary with pits per face being reported in Parsons and Cuthbertson Grown under identical conditions, E. Similar species Emex australis Steinh. Title Species comparison Caption Emex australis a and E. The same pre-requirements also result in aerial achenes germinating several days after subterranean achenes in response to suitable germination conditions.


Weed Control Apr WC Unlike the situation in Hawaii, E.

New plant records for Bihar from Santhal Pargana. Achenes are dimorphic with large mg and not very spiny subterranean achenes formed, attached to the crown near the neck of the root and smaller When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Chemical Control Herbicide-resistant weeds are an increasing problem promoted by the heavy reliance on post-emergent herbicides and in particular by the persistent use of the same type of chemical.

Both species have similar growing requirements and largely overlap in their predicted potential distribution Pheloung et al. Description Fruit an achene enclosed in persistent hardened perianth4—8 mm long, 2. To overcome the problems in using knapsack sprayers for herbicide application, a ‘drizzle’ method has been developed in which concentrated droplets of herbicides are squirted as a fine jet stream from up to 5 m away from the target weed which breaks up into large, sparsely distributed droplets that then drizzle onto the plant.

Sometimes Confused With Chorizanthe pungens: Three inner segments form an erect, connivent apex taller than spines. Some effects of competition between Emex australis and E.

The biology of Australian weeds.

Control of Emex species. Distribution Maps Top of page You can pan and zoom the map.