FM 100-17-2 PDF
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These pre-positioned sets of equipment are essential to the timely support of the United States US national military strategy in the areas of US national interest and treaty obligations. Land-based sets can be used to support a theater lodgment to allow the off-load of Army pre-positioned afloat equipment, and can be shipped to support any other theater worldwide. Since the end of the Cold War when the US reduced its forward presence overseas, the centerpiece of US defense strategy has been power projection.
Fn projection is the ability to rapidly and effectively deploy and sustain US forces in and from multiple, dispersed locations. Complementing overseas presence, power projection strives for unconstrained global 100-117-2.
Power projection assets are tailored to regional requirements and send a clear signal of US commitment. Being able to project power means being able to act even when we have no permanent presence or infrastructure in the region. If necessary, it means fighting our way into a denied theater or creating and protecting forward operating bases.
The ability to assemble and move to, through, and between a variety of environments, often while reconfiguring to meet specific mission requirements, is essential to offsetting an adversary’s advantage in mass or geographic proximity.
Global power projection provides our national leaders with the options they need to respond to potential crises. To make power projection and force projection a reality, the Army developed force closure timelines as part of the Mobility Requirements Study to maximize strategic transportation and materiel assets. These divisions can be a mix of armor, mechanized, or air assault as determined by the supported commander-in-chief CINC. Essential for meeting force projection timelines is the 100-172 mobility triad as shown in Figure The strategic mobility triad consists of pre-positioning, airlift, and sealift.
Historically, 10 percent of materiel sent to a theater arrives via airlift, while the remaining 90 percent arrives via sealift. However, strategic airlift and sealift often face multiple demands and cannot immediately deliver large amounts of heavy equipment to meet short-notice crises.
Therefore, Army pre-positioned materiel around the world plays a critical role in rapidly equipping forces deploying to major theater wars MTWssmaller-scale contingencies SSCsstability operations, or support operations. APS constitute one leg of the strategic mobility triad.
Field Manual FM 3-35.1 Army Prepositioned Operations July 2008 (FM 100-17-1 and 100-17-2)
Accordingly, APS is pre-positioned at several sites to ffm project power to potential contingency areas. Storage and maintenance procedures on land vary depending on the geopolitical situation at each storage site. For example, equipment in Europe and Korea is generally stored inside fixed facilities and serviced on a periodic cycle. APS are protected go-to-war assets and will not be used to improve peacetime readiness or fill unit shortages.
The unit sets consist of pre-positioned organizational equipment–end items, supplies, and secondary items–stored in unit configurations to reduce force deployment response time. Materiel is positioned ashore and afloat for the purpose of meeting the Army’s Global Pre-positioning Strategy requirements of more than one contingency in more than one theater of operations. Army Operational Project Stocks.
Operational project stocks are materiel above normal table of organizations and equipment TOEtable of distribution and allowances TDAand common table of allowance CTA authorizations tailored to key strategic capabilities essential to the Army’s ability to execute its power projection strategy.
They are used to authorize supplies and equipment above normal modified TOE MTOE authorizations to support one or more Army operations, plans, and contingencies. They are primarily positioned in CONUS with tailored portions or packages pre-positioned overseas and afloat. War reserve stocks are acquired in peacetime to meet increased wartime requirements. They consist of major and secondary materiel aligned and designated to satisfy the Army’s wartime sustainment requirements.
They provide minimum essential support to combat operations and post-mobilization training beyond the capabilities of peacetime stocks, industry, and host nation HN support. Sustainment stocks are pre-positioned in or near a theater of operations to last until resupply at wartime rates or emergency rates are established. They are released to the proper Army component commander for transfer to the supported allied dm under the Foreign Assistance Act upon a declaration of defense condition 2, and under existing country-to-country memorandums of agreement.
APS-2 Europe – Pre-positioned sets, operational project stocks, and limited war reserve sustainment stocks. For example, a particular mechanized division knew precisely where its POMCUS equipment was stored, knew exactly what types and models of equipment it would draw, and used previously prepared hand receipts to rapidly 100-71-2 property accountability.
As described, there are four categories of APS, and there are two types of storage locations, sea and land. The remainder of this f, focuses on procedures concerning land-based pre-positioned sets and refers to them as “Army pre-positioned land APL. The underlying concept of the APL program is to rapidly match deploying units with pre-positioned materiel and then move the APL-equipped forces to their assigned area of operation AO.
As such, APL is an integral part of the overall process of power projection. The APL concept has three essential steps. First, expeditiously unite airlifted unit personnel with pre-positioned materiel at APL sites.
FM – Mobilzation, Deployment, Redeployment, Demobilization –
Second, quickly organize deploying forces for onward movement at a staging base in the area of responsibility AOR. Finally, rapidly move them to a tactical assembly area TAA. APL materiel may require relocation via various modes of transportation, such as sealift, rail, or barge, in order to reach the employment location.
Under the APL concept, all personnel and a minimum amount of unit equipment deploy from home station via strategic airlift. Equipment that typically deploys with unit personnel includes to-accompany-troops TAT materiel, such as personal weapons and chemical defensive equipment CDEand not authorized pre-positioning NAP materiel.
NAP is authorized unit materiel, such as missiles and selected communications items, that for various reasons, cost, availability, sensitivity, unsuitability for storage is not authorized for storage at APL sites and must be brought from home station or elsewhere to complete the unit set.
From the ABS, deploying units can determine the additional equipment that they must bring from home station. See Chapter 3 for additional information regarding ABS.
The deploying unit sends nothing needed for immediate use ffm home station via sealift, as this would incur delays and negate the advantages of employing APL equipment. However, unit equipment not mission essential early in an operation may be sent by sealift for subsequent link-up with the deployed force. A unit that is equipped with APL stocks is not normally employed alone but fights as part of a division.
It is a significant element of a larger deployment involving multi-modal operations. A CINC’s decision during the window of opportunity to request that the deploying forces be equipped with APL equipment has a significant impact on all aspects of a deployment. Once made, the decision is difficult to change and affects the rest of the deployment. APL 10-17-2 force projection capability by reducing the time it takes to deploy a heavy task force or brigade-sized force. It also reduces the need for heavy lift assets during the critical “early entry” phase.
It allows a rapid buildup of heavy forces to demonstrate US resolve, reduce risk of open conflict, and counter hostile actions before arrival of 100-17–2 expansion or force protection mission prior to the arrival of surge sealift.
The intelligence preparation of the battlefield IPB provides an awareness of infrastructure availability and other demands on 100-117-2 infrastructure. The IPB is a source for developing threat assessments, particularly the asymmetric threat expected during the early entry period of deployment operations. However, deployment of additional forces for theater force opening may be essential if the area of employment of APL equipment lacks adequate infrastructure to logistically support APL forces and operations.
By the time the main body arrives 100-17-22 the AO, most tasks necessary to execute an APL draw are complete. Under certain circumstances, partial draws of equipment can occur. 10-17-2, this manual focuses on doctrinal procedures, that is a draw of complete unit set s of APL equipment in support of a contingency, history has shown that draws of task forces of battalion size or smaller tm occur.
| Field Manual FM Army Prepositioned Operations July (FM and
There are two methods for drawing APL equipment: The primary difference between these options is time. Because the focus of APL operations is on short-notice crises, emergency draw procedures are the model for US forces to plan, train for, and execute. However, on the basis of the tactical situation, regional CINCs can modify draw procedures to best support the mission. Below are summaries of the two draw options. Detailed procedures are in Chapter 3.
This is the most time-sensitive draw method for US Army forces.
It emphasizes rapidly drawing all serviceable equipment and quickly leaving the APL site for a staging base. While major end items are inventoried at the AWRSPTCMD storage facility, secondary tasks such as conducting percent inventories of equipment components, filling materiel shortages, and repairing and servicing equipment are usually postponed until unit arrival at the staging base.
Staging bases may be adjacent to APL sites or up to several hundred miles away in the same or a different country based on tactical, transportation, and security considerations. This option allows for a more orderly draw of equipment. It emphasizes maintenance and property accountability actions at the APL site rather than rapid issue of equipment and movement to the staging base. Under administrative procedures, personnel inspect and repair equipment on site, they thoroughly inventory and hand receipt materiel, vehicles marshal in the vicinity of the APL site, and convoy serials depart for the TAA in orderly columns.
The entire process takes several days to execute, unlike the speedier emergency procedures. Administrative issue procedures may be used for stability operations or support operations. Each stage is described below. Mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, time available, and civilian considerations METT-TCand other factors ultimately dictate the role of an APL-equipped force.
Once allotted APL stocks in support of an assigned contingency or mission, the unit commander and staff conduct required planning. Contingency planning involves preparing for potential crises and military operations.
Crisis action planning, which begins with receipt of an alert order, can convert contingency plans into operations orders OPORDs as mission requirements become known. See Chapter 2 for details concerning APL planning. The unit should also prepare to ship organic items when APL on-hand levels are below authorizations and constitute unit shortages.
Deploying units use the ABS to determine this requirement. Chapter 3 discusses ABS in more detail.
Deployment is the relocation of forces and materiel to desired AOs. Deployment encompasses all activities from origin or home station through destination. It specifically includes intra-continental US, intertheater, and intratheater movement legs, and activities in staging and holding areas. The supported CINC’s requirements drive deployment planning. Deployments fmm three distinct, but interrelated segments:. Figure depicts the deployment process.
For further information on deployment planning, see FM fk The process of unloading personnel and equipment from strategic or operational transport, marshaling local area transport if requiredand providing life support to the deploying personnel.
The process of assembling, holding, and organizing arriving personnel and equipment into units and forces, incrementally building combat power, and preparing them for onward movement; and providing life support for the personnel until the units become self-sustaining. The synchronized transfer of authority over units and forces to a designated component or functional commander for employment in the theater of operations.
When this stage concludes, force closure is achieved.