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The public identifier starts with: ” -//W3C//DTD XHTML Transitional// “. The system identifier is not missing and the public identifier starts with. notes de cours sur HTML et liste des balises; un autre cours généraliste sur XHTML/CSS; généralités sur les CSS et exemple concret · tester vos attributs pour. 20 nov. Utiliser les balises spécifiques en XHTML: et (cf geoURL et Dublin Je vous renvoie au wiki de ce site pour avoir la liste des.

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This section only applies to documents, authoring tools, and markup generators. In particular, it does not apply to conformance checkers; conformance checkers must use the requirements given in the next section “parsing HTML documents”. Any number of comments and space characters. The document elementin the form of an html element. In addition, there are some restrictions on how character encoding declarations are to be serialized, as discussed in the section on xhtlm topic.

Many strings in the HTML syntax e. For convenience, in this section this is just referred to as “case-insensitive”.

When omitted, browsers tend to use a different rendering mode that is incompatible with some specifications. One or more space characters.

Zero or more space characters. This string must consist of:. There are six different kinds of elements: All other allowed HTML elements are normal elements.

Tags are used to delimit the start and end of elements in the markup. Raw textescapable raw textand normal elements have a ballises tag to indicate where they begin, and an end tag to indicate where they end. The start and end tags of certain normal elements can be omittedas described below in the section on [[ optional tags]]. Those that cannot be omitted must not be omitted. Void elements only have a start tag; end tags must not be specified for void elements. Foreign elements must either have a start tag and an end tag, or a start tag that is marked as self-closing, in which case they must not have an end tag.

The contents of the chtml must be placed between just after the start tag which might be implied, in certain cases and just before the end tag which again, might be implied, in certain cases. The exact allowed contents of each individual element depend on the content model of that element, as described earlier in this specification.

Elements must not contain content that their content model disallows. In addition to the restrictions placed on the contents by those content models, however, the five types of elements have additional syntactic requirements. The template element can have template contentsbut such template contents are not children of the template element itself. Instead, they are stored in a DocumentFragment associated with a different Document — without a browsing context — so as to avoid the template contents interfering with the main Document.

Raw text elements can have dewthough it has restrictions described below. Escapable raw text elements can have text and character referencesbut the text must not contain an ambiguous ampersand. There are also further restrictions described below.

Les microformats

The innermost element, cdr: In fact, as the comment in the fragment above says, the fragment is actually non-conforming. This is because the SVG specification does not define any elements called ” cdr: Some normal elements also have yet more restrictions on what content they are allowed to hold, beyond the restrictions imposed by the content model and those described in this lisre. Those restrictions are described below. Start tags must have the following format:.

If there are to be any attributes in the next step, there must first be one or more space characters. Then, the start tag may have a number of attributes, the syntax for which is described below.


Attributes must be separated from each other by one or more space characters. After the attributes, or after the tag name if there are no attributes, there may be one or more space characters. Some attributes are required to be followed by a space. This character has no effect on void elementsbut on foreign elements it marks the start tag as self-closing. End tags must have the following format:. After the tag name, there may be one or more space characters. Attributes have a name and a value.

Attribute values are a mixture of text and character referencesexcept with the additional restriction that the text cannot contain an ambiguous ampersand. Just the attribute name. The value is implicitly the empty string. If an attribute using the empty attribute syntax is to be followed by another attribute, then balisess must be xhtkl space character separating the two.

If an attribute using the single-quoted attribute syntax is to be followed by another attribute, then there must be a space character separating the two. If an attribute using the double-quoted attribute syntax is to be followed by another attribute, then there must be a space character separating the two. There must never be two or more attributes on the same start tag whose names are an ASCII case-insensitive match for each other.

When a foreign element has one of the namespaced attributes given by the local name and namespace of the first and second cells of a row from the following table, it must xntml written using the name given by the third listf from the same row. No other namespaced attribute can be expressed in the HTML syntax. Whether the attributes in the table above are conforming or not is defined by other specifications e. Certain tags can be omitted.

This has the exact same DOM. In particular, note that white space around the document element is ignored by the parser. The following example would also have the exact same DOM:. However, in the following example, removing the start tag moves the comment to before the html element:.

This is why the tag can only be removed if it is not followed by a comment: Of course, if the position of the comment does not matter, then the tag can be omitted, as if the comment had been moved to before the start tag in the first place. The body and html element end tags could be omitted without trouble; any spaces after those get parsed into the body element anyway.

This would be equivalent to this document, with the omitted tags shown in their parser-implied positions; the only white space text node that results from this is the newline at the end of the head element:. Ves the cells take up much less room this way, this can be made even terser by having each row on one line:. The only differences between these tables, at the DOM level, is with the precise position of the in any case semantically-neutral white space.

Howevera start tag must never be omitted if it has any attributes. If the body element in this example had to have a class attribute and the html element had to have a lang attribute, the markup would have to become:. This section assumes that the document is conforming, in particular, that there are no content model violations.

Omitting tags in the fashion described in this section in a document that does not conform to the content models described in this specification is likely to result in unexpected DOM differences this is, in part, what the content models are designed to avoid.

For historical reasons, certain elements have extra restrictions beyond even the restrictions given by their content model. A table element must not contain tr elements, even though these elements are technically allowed inside table elements according to the content models described in this specification.


If a tr element is put inside a table in the markup, it will in fact imply a tbody start tag before it. A single newline may be placed immediately after the start tag of pre and textarea elements. This does not affect the processing of the element. Text is allowed inside elements, attribute values, and comments. Extra constraints are placed on what is and what is not allowed in text based on where the text is to be put, as described in the other sections.

HTML Elements Valid DOCTYPES

In certain cases described in other sections, text may be mixed with character references. Following this, there are three possible kinds of character references:. CDATA sections must consist of the following components, in this order:.

Comments must have the following format:. Together, these rules define what is referred to as the HTML parser. The resulting confusion — with validators claiming documents to have one representation while widely deployed Web browsers interoperably implemented a different representation — has wasted decades of productivity.

This specification defines the parsing rules for HTML documents, whether they are syntactically correct or not. Certain points in the parsing algorithm are said to be parse errors.

Conformance checkers must report at least one parse error condition to the user if one or more parse error conditions exist in the document and must not report parse error conditions if none exist in the document.

Conformance checkers may report more than one parse error condition if more than one parse error condition exists in the document.

Parse errors are only errors with the syntax of HTML. In addition to checking for parse errorsconformance checkers will also verify that the document obeys all the other conformance requirements described in this specification. As stated in the terminology section, references to element types that do not explicitly specify a namespace always refer to elements in the HTML namespace. Where possible, references to such elements are hyperlinked to their definition.

The input to the HTML parsing process consists of a stream of Unicode code pointswhich is passed through a tokenization stage followed by a tree construction stage.

The output is a Document object. Implementations that do not support scripting do not have to actually create a DOM Document object, but the DOM tree in such cases is still used as the model for the rest of the specification.

In the common case, the data handled by the tokenization stage comes from the network, but it can also come from script running in the user agent, e. To handle these cases, parsers have a script nesting levelwhich must be initially set to zero, and a parser pause flagwhich must be initially set to false.

The stream of Unicode code points that comprises the input to the tokenization stage will be initially seen by the user agent as a stream of bytes typically coming over the network or from the local file system.

The bytes encode the actual characters according to a particular character encodingwhich the user agent uses to decode the bytes into characters.

For XML documents, the algorithm user agents are required to use to determine the character encoding is given by baljses XML specification. This section does not apply to XML documents. Usually, the encoding sniffing algorithm defined below is used to determine the character encoding.