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It is battle between land power and sea power which is going to lead the world continents by one. What is Heartland theory? This theory explains,greatest wealth. Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: Mackinder gave this theory in This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers. The final tradition informing geopolitical thought in Russia today is the celebrated “Heartland” theory of the British geographer and statesman. Halford Mackinder.

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Mackinder gave this theory in This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers with the ultimate victory going to the continental power. This assertion was also supported by Kjellen. According to this theory, the continental power was represented by the world island which consisted of Eurasia and Africa comprising seven- eighth thwory total world population and two-third of the total land area of the world.

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory – Explained!

Mackinder called it the Heartland total area being 11 million square kilometres. This Heartland was perceived as the greatest natural fortress on earth surrounded on all sides by geographical barriers. It had rugged mountains of Lena Land in the north-east; in the east it had the Altai, Tienshan mountains across which lie the wastelands of Mongolia and Sinkiang; in the south it had Hindukush ranges and the plateau of Afghanistan and Iran; in the south-west, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Thoery lie the Caucasus and the plateau of Armenia; in the west, the Heartland was surrounded by hesrtland Carpathian mountains; in the north-west were the Baltic Sea and the wastes of Lappland; in the north lies the Arctic Ocean.


The other landmasses would follow later. The Heartland is inaccessible from sea as all theoyr rivers either drain inland e.

The Geographical Pivot of History – Wikipedia

Volga, Oxus, Jaxartes thdory into the icy sea e. Obi, Yenisei, Lena which drain into the Arctic Sea. Mackinder predicted that whoever got the balance of power in its favour would rule-the World Island.

He divided Europe into east and west by a line joining the Adriatic to the Baltic. This dividing line was also a zone of struggle between the Teutonic Germany and the Slavs Russia with no established balance of power.

The Geographical Pivot of History

The Heartland or pivot area could have become the focus of power if either Russia had united with Germany or Russia had been overthrown by China and Japan. The Heartland concept inspired Kjellen and Haushofer in their study of geopolitics. This concept is an analysis of the theiry pattern of the world and includes predictions based on this analysis.


Its simplicity and boldness have been achieved at the cost of accuracy regarding the historical and the geographical thoery. One major drawback of this theory is its inability to make allowances for the technological advances.

The theory was formulated at the end of the railway age.

Mackinder saw it as a high point of communication system capable of uniting the whole Heartland into a cohesive unit. That never actually happened.

What is the Heartland Theory?

Although the age of aeroplanes had begun, the theory failed to take into account its potential. His map Mercator projection of the world enclosed within an ellipse exaggerated the extent of the Arctic Ocean. Also, China later went on to join the communist sphere, while the Saudi Arabia-Sahara barrier could not prevent the Cold War from spilling over into Africa.

Anyway, the advances in satellite, missile, atomic and space technologies makcinder overshadowed the strategic importance of geographic factors.

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